Chinese Medicine Outside of China
This article is based on the results of comparative research into the appearance and integration of Chinese medicine (often limited to acupuncture in Europe) into French and Italian medical contexts during the twentieth century. The relationship between Chinese and conventional medicine and attempts at complementarity are studied, using as a starting-point a vast number of interviews with medical practitioners, observations of training sessions in the field, the study of the archives of the major French and Italian associations and schools of acupuncture and Chinese medicine, and a qualitative analysis of questionnaires distributed in training institutions. The motivations of French and Italian acupuncturists are also analysed, as are their representations of Chinese medicine. Particular attention is paid to a comparison between the French and Italian situations.